2, Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Kyoto, , Japan
The ultimate dynamic electrical performance of functional ceramic devices depends on the nanoscale materials properties in 3-dimensions. Thickness effects and engineered heterogeneities are of particular interest, requiring advances in nanoscale functional measurements. Accordingly, emerging methods for micromachining and Tomographic AFM, along with Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM), Piezo Force Microscopy (PFM), and Conductive AFM (cAFM), are used to study dielectric and ferroelectric heterostructures, including as a function of thickness. Dynamic charging and discharging processes are notably mapped with KPFM as a function of time and energy, providing novel insight into local dielectric behavior and especially the voltage dependencies of surface or grain boundary defect states. These are related to sub-surface features and thickness dependencies via tomographic PFM and cAFM, volumetrically revealing size effects, 3-dimensional heterogeneities, and charge dissipation pathways. By considering in-situ charging and discharging phenomena, the engineered performance for micro- and nano- scale electronic devices such as multi-layer-chip-capacitors can therefore be optimized.