1, Universidad Panamericana, Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico
2, Research Organization for Information Science & Technology, Tokyo, , Japan
3, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania, United States
The demand of water is increasing along with population growth, where fresh water sources are decreasing and improved methods for water reclamation are needed. This is fundamental in order to create self-sustaining societies. Graphene oxide (GO) membranes have been widely studied for water desalination, pigment filtration and solvent separation, however there are few scalable methods to produce large membranes for water filtration. In addition, chemical stability and antifouling properties are needed in order to be promising candidates for real applications. In this work, we present a spray-coated GO membrane for water filtration. Its desalination performance was measured for a mixture of GO/few-layered graphene and only GO, where salt rejection can reach between 80% and 90% and a permeate flux of 0.1 - 0.4 m3m-2day-1. The membranes were kept in a solution of sodium hypochlorite (200 pm), a typical agent for industrial cleaning of filtration membranes. Here, the membranes with few-layered graphene exhibited an increased chemical resistance. Furthermore, protein fouling against negative and positive charged proteins bovine serum albumin and lysozyme, respectively, was carried out by monitoring variations in permeate flux and microscopy. The GO membranes demonstrated excellent anti-fouling against both membranes due to electrostatic interactions, hydrophilicity and surface smoothness. The present membranes have excellent scalable fabrication method, chemical resistance and anti-organic fouling necessary for real-world applications in water reclamation, desalination, food industry, etc.